Key six sigma glossary and principles

3P – Process, productivity, preparation

5 Lean Principles –

5S – set, sort, shine, standardize, and sustain (6s – safety or security)

8D – (Create a team, define a problem, develop containment plan, develop and verify root cause, verify permanent solution, prevention, congratulate the team)

ACE – Achieving competitive excellence

Andon – A visual and/or audible communication system that notifies every one of abnormalities in a process when support or attention is needed. This can be triggered automatically or manually by a machine or person.

ANOVA – Analysis of variance

APQP – Advanced product quality planning

Box Plot – top of the box represents the 75th percentile, middle box is the median, bottom of the box represents 25th percentile

CANDO – is developed by henry ford to make the work area more organized and efficient (cleaning up, arranging, neatness, discipline, ongoing improvement)

OSHA – occupational safety and health administration

CAPA – corrective action and preventative action

Capability – A measure of how well the process or product measurements are able to stay within the defined limits or specifications over the long term. Capability indices include Cp, Cpk, Cpm, Pp and Ppk.

Cardboard City – The use of cardboard and duct tape to make life-sized replicas of a workspace

Cellular manufacturing – parts are completed within the cell in small lots (u shaped, inverted u shaped, straight line)

Concurrent Engineering – A method of simultaneously designing products, and the processes for manufacturing those products, through the use of cross functional teams

Control chart – control chart is a type of time based trend analysis tool used within statistical process control. it is also called a process behavior chart, renamed by Donald Wheeler

Countermeasure – when a problem cannot be resolved immediately, a temporary action is taken to prevent the problem from continuing to occur in the process

Cp – A measure of process capability, calculated as a ratio of tolerance or specification limits (upper limit – lower limit) divided by the process variation (6 standard deviation (6* S.D))

DFMEA – Design, Failure model and effect analysis

RPN – risk priority number

DMAIC – Define, measure, analyze, improve and control

Error proofing – Any mechanism or device in a process that helps eliminate defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human error as they occur. Also known as poka-yoke which was developed and popularized by shigeo shingo

FIFO – First in first out

FMEA – failure mode and effect analysis

Gage R&R – (Repeatability & reproducibility) –

A specific type of measurement system analysis (MSA) using 2 or 3 operates (or measurement tools), 5 to 10 parts or items, and 2 to 3repeat measurements. Each employee will measure each item multiple times (repeatability), and their average measurement of each item will be compared to the average for the operators or measurement tools (reproducibility). If the variation of repeatability and reproducibility exceeds 10% of the tolerance width (upper limit – lower limit), then it is recommended to make improvements in the measurement system to reduce variation.

Gaussian distribution

Gemba – (meaning – the actual place) – Gemba walk (observe, communicate, recognize, cooperate, solve the problem)

Hawthorne Effect – when individuals modify an aspect of their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed, which can change the outcome or result of research or investigation, especially the cause adn effect relationship between variables.

Jidoka – (known as automation) it provides machines and operators the ability to detect when an abnormal condition has occurred and immediately stop work when a problem first occurs

Kaizen – ( kai -change, zen – Good) – continuous improvement – kaizen means all personnel are expected to stop their work when they encounter any abnormality and along with their supervisor suggest an improvement to resolve the abnormality

A kaizen burst event should be part of an overall program of continuous improvement if they are to be successful and for gains to be sustained

Kanban – A signaling system (often with colored cards) based on consumption, which is setup to replace items only when the customer takes the previous item, creating pull instead of push system

Kappa – Kappa is a way to assess a system based on the degree of agreement in a measurement system, to see if it is more effective the guessing at the right answer (usually pass, fail decisions)

Karl Pearson -( correlation coefficient(r); method of moments – descriptive statistics used for teh fitting of distributions to samples; p value; Pearson’s chi squared test – a hypothesis test using normal approximation for discrete data)

Key Characteristic – A product characteristic for which reasonably anticipated variation is likely to significantly affect customer satisfaction such as fit, function, mounting or appearance, or the ability to process or build the product.

Measurement System Analysis – The study of how much variation in the measurement is assigned to the measurement tools, techniques, setup, work environment, and employees

MoSCoW – MoSCoW is an acronym for “Must have, Should have, Could have and Would have” which is used to help prioritize the importance of tasks and requirements, so that time and resources are used to maximize value

Nelson Rules

1. One point is more the 3 standard deviations from the mean

2. Nine 9 (or more) points in a row are on the same side of the mean

3. Six (or more) points in a row are continually increasing (or deceasing)

4. Fourteen (or more) points in a row alternate in direction, increasing then decrying

5. Two (or three) out of three points in a row are more than 2 standard deviations from the mean in the same direction

6. Four (or five) out of five points in a row are more than 1 standard deviation from the mean in the same direction

7. Fifteen points in a row are all within 1 standard deviation of the mean on either side of the mean

8. Eight points in a row within 1 standard deviation of the mean and the points are in both directions from the mean

OEE – overall equipment effectiveness (OEE = total time -(availability losses+speed losses+quality losses)

Ohno Circle – one of the technique that he is credited with is teaching people how to see waste in the processs. He would apparently draw a chalk circle on the floor, and ask the individual to stand in the circle for hours at a time without leaving. The individual is asked to observe the process being performed numerous times, which will help them see the waste after understanding the core process being performed

OTED – one touch exchange of die, one touch simply means that the exchange can be done with a single motion, rather than multiple steps

Overall Equipment Effectiveness

p-value – p value is a shortened way of writing the probability value. this is the calculated value that results from hypothesis tests, in order to decide if one or more groups differ statistically form each other

p value less than 0.05 is a rejection of the idea that the groups are similar to each other

p value greater than 0.05 mean that you cannot reject the idea

Pacemaker – the steps of a process that are dedicated to a particular family of products or service that responds directly to orders from external customers. A well-run pacemaker sends smooth demand signals upstream to the pull loops of the remaining processes, which respond to requirements from internal customers

Pareto chart – it is an analytical tool that graphically demonstrates the pareto principle or the 80-20 rule. it is used to view causes of a problem in order of severity or impact from largest to smallest.

Paynter Chart -A graphical tool developed by the ford motor company that combines a run chart with a pareto chart, showing how the issues have been reduced and improved over time ( before and after)

PDCA -Plan, Do, Control, act

PFMEA – Process, Failure, Mode & Effect analysis

Poka-yoke – mistake proofing

POLCA – Paired cell overlapping loops of cards with authorization

POLCA divides the workplace into flexible and multidisciplinary staffed work cells. These only mae semi-finished products or services for receiving work cells only if they have free capacity.

POLCA cards circulate between the work cells, and create signal only if there is room for further processing. The polca cards do not have any part numbers or items numbers on it, so the work cell decides what is most important to produce at the time.

PPAP – Production part approval process

QDIP – Quality, delivery, inventory, productivity

SQDC – Safety, quality, delivery, customer

QRM – Quick response manufacturing

Repeatability – The amount of variation in a measurement system assigned to inconsistencies in how the employee measures the same part or item in the same location.

Reproducibility – The amount of variation in a measurement system assigned to differences in employees, measurement tools and equipment, techniques, setup or other physical factors.

Risk Priority Number (RPN) – = severity* Occurrence* Detection

Seven Quality Tools –  cause and effect diagrams, pareto charts, process mapping and data gathering tools-check sheets, histograms, frequency diagrams, spot charts, pie charts, run charts and control charts, scatter plots and correlation analysis, flowcharts

SIMO Chart – simultaneous motion cycle

the chart is used in conjunction with therbligs to study the detailed activity of a worker, to capture how long the operation takes and what activities are being performed by each.

SIPOC – Supplier, inputs, process, outputs, customer

Six Sigma

SMED – Single minute exchange of dies

SPACER – standardize, parallel processing, automate, consolidate, eliminate, re-arrange, simplify (or) safety, purpose, agendas, conduct, expectations, roles

SQDC -safety, quality, delivery, customer

SPC – Statistical Process Control

Taguchi Loss Function – it is a graphical representation of how an increase in variation within specification limits leads to an exponential increase in customer dissatisfaction. the common thinking around specification limits is that the customer is satisfied as long as the variation stays within the specification limits. if the variation exceeds the limits, then the customer immediately feels dissatisfied.

Takt Time – the formula is the amount of available time in the work day divided by the customer demand. Remember that in takt time, the available time always goes on the top of the quotation

TBC – Time based competition, which focuses on the speed of product development and lead time for the customer

Therbligs – Time-based competition – Time-motion study

Trystorming – trystroming is a combination of brainstorming melded with rapid prototyping to determine if ideas will work quickly or not

TWI -training within industry

VIF – variance inflation factor. During regressing analysis, if assesses whether factors are correlated to each other, which could affect p values and the model isn’t going to be as reliable

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